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Citation Guides: APA

Tools for formatting your bibliography and your footnotes

APA Style Guides

APA Style Guide

The following is taken directly from the Wikipedia page:

The APA style guide prescribes that the Reference section, bibliographies and other lists of names should be accumulated by surname first, and mandates inclusion of surname prefixes. For example, "Martin de Rijke" should be sorted as "de Rijke, M." and "Saif Al-Falasi" should be sorted as "Al-Falasi, S." For names in non-English languages, follow the capitalization standards of that language. For each of the source types below a hanging indent should be used where the first line is flush to the left margin and all other lines are indented.

Print sources

Book by one author
  • Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego, CA: Halstead.
Book by two authors
  • Kurosawa, J., & Armistead, Q. (1972). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: McMaster University Press.
Chapter in an edited book
  • Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London, England: OtherWorld Books.
Dissertation (PhD or masters)
  • Mcdonalds, A. (1991). Practical dissertation title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Article in a journal with continuous pagination (nearly all journals use continuous pagination)
  • Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146.
  • Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 470–500. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.4.470
Article in a journal paginated separately Journal Pagination
  • Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.
Article in a weekly magazine
  • Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28–31.
Article in a weekly magazine with DOI
  • Hoff, K. (2010, March 19). Fairness in modern society. Science, 327, 1467–1468. doi:10.1126/science.1188537
Article in a print newspaper
  • Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). "Never gonna give you up," says mayor. Toronto Sol, p. 4.

Electronic sources

For electronic references, websites, and online articles, APA Style asserts some basic rules, including to

  • direct readers specifically to the source material using URLs which work
  • include retrieval date ONLY when content is likely to change (e.g., wikis)
  • include all other relevant APA Style details for the source
Online article based on a print source, with DOI (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database)
  • Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Externalizing psychopathology in adulthood: A dimensional-spectrum conceptualization and its implications for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 537-550. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.537
Online article based on a print source, without DOI (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database)
  • Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–127.
Online article from a database, no DOI, available ONLY in that database (proprietary content—not things like Ovid, EBSCO, and PsycINFO)


  • Liquor advertising on TV. (2002, January 18). Retrieved from Issues and Controversies database.
Article in an Internet-only journal
Article in an Internet-only newsletter (eight or more authors)
  • Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., Thyme, E. J., . . . Bradford, J. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update.Off the Beaten Path, 7. Retrieved from
Article with no author identified (the title moves to the "author" position)
Article with no author and no date identified (e.g., wiki article)
Entry in an online dictionary or reference work, no date and no author identified
E-mail or other personal communication (cite in text only)
  • (A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001)
Book on CD
  • Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York, NY: Random House/Listening Library.
Book on tape
  • Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]. New York, NY: Random House/Listening Library.
  • Gilby, A. (Producer), & Schlesinger, J. (Director). (1995). Cold comfort farm [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal.

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