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Citation Guides: MLA

Tools for formatting your bibliography and your footnotes

MLA 8th Edition

The Eigth Edition of the MLA, published in 2016, rethinks documentation for an era of digital publication.

MLA's summary of what's new.

Purdue's summary of what's new

Other MLA Links

Here's a link to an MLA style sheet placed on Moodle by the Academic Skills Centre

Purdue University has a guide to MLA style.

A print copy of the MLA Handbook is available on reserve: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers - Reserve LB2369.M53

There is an online tutorial (from Eastern Washington University) for using APA and MLA citation styles.


RefWorks is a program where you can store citations and then use those citations to create a bibliography.  It is designed  for you to keep track of all the sources you use for your essay, such as books, articles, and web pages.

You can then use that list of sources to easily create citations and bibliographies. If you're interested in giving RefWorks a try, go to the Refworks Library Guide, or view one of the online tutorials in the Help section of the library.

Bibliography Citations

This is taken directly from Wikipedia


Author's name [last name, first name, middle initial or middle name (as given)]. Title. Place of publication: publisher, date. Print. Supplementary information (if any).

Hodgkinson, Tom. How to Be Idle. New York: Harper, 2005. Print.

Article in a periodical (magazine or journal, as well as newspapers)

Author's name [last name, first name, middle initial or middle name (as given)]. "Article title." Title of periodical Volume number ("for a scholarly journal").[period]issue number ("if available, for a scholarly journal") Date of publication within parentheses ("for a scholarly journal, the year; for other periodicals, the day, month, and year, as available"): Pages ("inclusive"). Print.[2]

Brophy, Mike. "Driving Force." Hockey News 21 Mar. 2006: 16-19. Print.

Kane, Robert. "Turing Machines and Mental Reports." Australasian Jour. of Philosophy 44.3 (1966): 334-52. Print.

If the journal uses only issue numbers, cite the issue number alone.[3]

If citing a "locally-published newspaper" whose city of publication is not in its title, the city is put in square brackets (but not italicized) after the title of the newspaper (178–79).

Internet resource

Adapted from section 6.7: "Citing Web Publications" (211–21).[4]

Author of Web page (last name, first name, middle initial or middle name [as given]). "Article Title." Title of Web page [publication]. Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, useN.p. [followed by a comma], date of publication [or date last modified] (day, month, and year, as available); if no date is available, use n.d.. Medium of publication (Web). Date of access (day, month, and year). [Optional:] <url>.

"Boston Columnist Resigns Amid New Plagiarism Charges." Cable News Network and Reuters, 19 Aug. 1998. Web. 28 Apr. 2008. [Optional:] <>.

Personal interview

Name of person interviewed (last name, first name, middle initial or middle name [as given]). Personal interview. Date interviewed.

Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 10 July 1993.

"Material from a Periodically Published Database on CD-ROM or DVD-ROM" (237)

Adapted from section 6.8: "Citing Additional Common Sources" (221–39).

Name of author (last name, first name, middle initial or middle name [as given]). Publication information for the printed source or printed analogue (including title within quotation marks) date of print publication: inclusive page numbers (if known). Medium of publication consulted: CD-ROM or DVD-ROM. Title of the database (italicized). Name of the vendor. Publication date of the database.

Reed, William. "Whites and the Entertainment Industry." Tennessee Tribune 25 Dec. 1996: 28. CD-ROM. Ethnic NewsWatch. Data Technologies. Feb. 1997.

In-Text Citations

This is taken directly from Wikipedia

Brief parenthetical citations, including the name or names of author(s) and/or short titles (as needed) and numbers of pages (as applicable), are used within the text. These are keyed to and direct readers to a work or works by author(s) or editor(s) and sometimes titles (if the works are anonymous), as they are presented on the list of works cited (in alphabetical order), and the page(s) of the item where the information is located (e.g. (Smith 107) refers the reader to page 107 of the cited work by an author whose surname is Smith). If there are more than one author of the same name and/or more than one title of works by that author or authors being cited, then a first name or initial and/or titles or short titles are also used within the text's parenthetical references to avoid ambiguity. (No "p." or "pp." prefaces the page numbers and main words in titles appear in capital letters, following MLA style guidelines.) The full citation appears in the list of "Works Cited."

To cite a work within an article, paper, or book, one inserts the author's name in an introductory phrase and then within parentheses inserts the page number of the work in which the information appears.

In How to Be Idle Tom Hodgkinson says that industrialization dramatically changed the habits of workers in England (81).

Complete information about the publication by Hodgkinson is listed alphabetically in the "Works Cited."

If the author is not mentioned in an introductory phrase, the author's name, followed by the page number, must appear in parentheses.

The habits of England's workers changed dramatically during the Industrial Revolution (Hodgkinson 81).

When citing an entire work, or one without page numbers (or only one page), one writes only the author's name in parentheses.

The "Works Cited" (bibliography) may contain more than one work by an author. If the text preceding the citation does not specify the title of the work, there is a comma after the author's name followed by a shortened version of the title in question (or the entire title if it is short) and the page number. Such a short title may include the first significant word or words of the title.

Securing its communications through the Suez Canal was Britain's overriding aim (Smith, Islam 71).

In the "Works Cited" or bibliography, three short dashes (––– if word processed; hyphens [---] when typed) are used when the author or authors' name is the same in subsequent works being listed.

These in-text parenthetical citations guide the reader to the pertinent entries in the attached list of "Works Cited":

Hodgkinson, Tom. How to Be Idle. New York: Harper, 2005. Print.

Smith, Charles D. "The 'Crisis of Orientation': The Shift of Egyptian Intellectuals to Islamic Subjects in the 1930's." International Jour. of Middle East Studies 4.4 (1973): 382–410. Print.

–––. Islam and the Search for Social Order in Modern Egypt: A Biography of Muhammad Husayn Haykal. Albany: State U of New York P, 1983. Print.