Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
New Home for Theses
On January 29th, 2019, the University launched the Institutional Repository at Brandon University (IRBU). As part of this process:
- Theses in this libguide were migrated to IRBU
- New theses will be added to IRBU and will not be added to this site.
To visit IRBU go to: https://irbu.arcabc.ca/
E-Thesis in Education
Master of Education e-Thesis
Avon, Graham. ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAMS AND THE TRANSITION FROM SECONDARY TO POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION. (2012)
The transition from secondary education to post-secondary education is problematic for many students. Attrition rates at post-secondary institutions, with the attendant loss of human capital, continue to be a source of concern. This case study concerned the transition of students from secondary education to post-secondary education and was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in southwestern Manitoba. In particular, this transition was examined from the perspective of current university students who had taken Advanced Placement courses in high school.
Findings from the study shed light on aspects of the educational landscape that were influential to the participants during this period in their lives. In the process the findings reveal potential reasons for the high levels of attrition currently experienced. The findings suggest that the overwhelming majority of the participants experienced a successful transition to university. The participants felt that this was in large part due to the content of their AP courses, and also due to being exposed to challenges that were similar in nature to those they could expect at university. The dynamics of the learning environment at both levels of education were found to be instrumental in the development of the participants, both in a positive and a negative
direction. In general the findings suggest that the pedagogical philosophies of the two levels of education are not consistent and the degree of articulation between the two levels of education is not sufficient to ensure a smooth transition. Recommendations for improving the articulation between the two levels of education are included. Changes on both sides of the transition appear to be necessary in order to reduce the difficulties that are currently experienced by students.
Choji, Joseph Davou. Factors that contribute to academic success for students from low socio-economic backgrounds: A comparative study of two selected schools; one in Saskatoon, Canada, and the other in Barkin-Ladi (Gwol), Nigeria. (2013)
Abstract: My thesis research addresses the factors that contribute to students' academic performance with special reference to children that come from low socio-economic backgrounds. It is a comparative study of two schools: one in Saskatoon, Canada, and the other in Barkin-Ladi, Nigeria. As a child who came from a low socio-economic background, and later as an adult who worked in a school with many students from low socio-economic backgrounds, I wanted to write on this topic. The sampled schools in Saskatoon and Barkin-Ladi were purposively chosen as those that have a considerable number of children from low socio-economic backgrounds. The basic question I tried to answer in my study is how students who come from low socio-economic backgrounds can best be helped to achieve academically.
In my study, I have learned that the insightful and helpful steps on helping students in the sampled school in Saskatoon are the early focus on literacy, responding to data-driven record keeping, the online survey on What Did You Learn In School Today(WDYLIST), the Child Hunger Education Program (CHEP), and the Safety, Teamwork, Attitude, Responsibility, and Respect (STARR) program. In my research findings with the sampled school in Barkin-Ladi, Nigeria, scouting for financial sponsorship, subsidizing school fees, providing educational learning materials, and organizing competitions, debates, and quizzes are essential for helping students from impoverished backgrounds excel in academics.
I discovered in my study that for participants in the sampled school in Saskatoon, Canada, teaching is viewed primarily as a vocation rather than only as a profession. Teacher perception of the profession is important in regards to being dedicated to meeting the needs of students. The study has also showed that there is a strong sense of community and unity of purpose in both sampled schools.
In the sampled school in Barkin-Ladi, Nigeria, the school being a Catholic mission helped makes a big difference in the moral upbringing of the students. As well, the examination promotion policy kept the students alert and working hard so as not to be retained or repeated in the same class. The poverty level in Nigeria cannot be compared to that of Canada. The poverty in Nigeria is so visible that there can be no mistake about who is poor and who is rich even when looking at the schools that the children attend. I have gathered from my study and my life in Nigeria that the government has a good national policy on Education but poor implementation. The sourcing for sponsorship is a big need for children from poor families to be engaged in school. Implementing the Child Hunger and Education Program (CHEP) and Safety, Teamwork, Attitude, Responsibility, and Respect (STARR) programs in the schools in Nigeria will assist students coming from low socio-economic backgrounds.
Corr, Dana. Empowering Adolescent Girls: Application of an Empowerment Program in Rural Manitoba. (2011)
Abstract: This study examined the impact of an in-school empowerment program on adolescent girls in rural Manitoba. In this mixed methods research study, the sample, grade seven girls from four rural schools, participated in an eight-lesson empowerment program over three to five months. The Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale was used as the standardized instrument in gathering quantitative data. Participant interviews and program materials were used to gather qualitative data. The research results support the effectiveness of the empowerment program for adolescent girls. The quantitative data suggest a positive impact of the empowerment program with evident increases in test scores in global self-concept, and across the Social, Competence, Affect, Academic, Family, and Physical domains. The qualitative data also support the empowerment program, with both participants and counsellors perceiving the empowerment program as a positive experience with evident benefits to participants, and recommending the program to other adolescent girls.
Duncan-Williams, Ebenezer. Making inclusion work for young people in Manitoba: Developing a floursighin framework for the education of marginalized offenders. (2017)
The purpose of this qualitative framework analysis study was to examine issues of inclusion in Manitoba. I specifically focused on exploring the conditions that are required to develop an inclusive education framework within which marginalized youth, who are involved with, or at risk of involvement with the justice system, can flourish. This study extends the common definition of inclusive education to include education that satisfies the needs of all children and youth, specifically those that are marginalized by their tendancies to participate in criminal behaviours. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with six research participants, who had extensive experience working with these marginalized young people. My analysis of participants’ interview responses yielded fourteen themes that I grouped into four main categories: 1) interpersonal qualities: relationship, respect, trust, authenticity, advocacy, and self-esteem, 2) emotional capacities: love, compassion, empathy, belonging, and caring, 3) enabling pedagogies:critical pedagogy and assessment, and 4) intended outcomes included flourishing. The framework shows participants’ views about what is needed to improve the educational outcomes for young people. From my analysis of the data, I concluded that interpersonal qualities are opportunities to improve engagement in the learning process as these qualities improve how teachers and students treat each other. The respondents also showed that although it is challenging, educators and students can use their emotions to develop sensitivities to personal stories that lead to motivation and inspiration to seek alternative ways of improving educational outcomes. In addition, teaching practice presents opportunities for teachers and students to examine educational structures and provisions, and find ways of improving access and removing barriers. Flourishing was found to be an end goal that starts from the beginning and motivate teachers to be persistent and wavering about how they communicate love to youth.
Fraser, Alann. Implementation of a Response to Intervention in Rural Early and Middle Years Schools (2017)
This qualitative study explored the experiences of administrators while implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) in early/middle years schools in rural Manitoba. Administrators were interviewed to discover how they experienced the implementation process and to glean advice for other administrators who were beginning the process of implementing RTI. Data were collected through recorded phone interviews with each participant by the researcher.
The study’s findings demonstrated that the decision to implement RTI resulted from a need to support students who presented gaps in their skills. The decision was made by administrators and superintendents in order to close the skill gaps. The administrators shared the experiences that they encountered during the implementation process as well as expected and unexpected results of implementing RTI in the school. The administrators provided advice that would support an administrator new to the process of implementing RTI in a rural early or middle years school. The study also revealed some resources, professional development, and strategies to effectively implement RTI.
Gilleshammer, Susan . Active affiliation as a process for engagement and social change for marginalized high school students. (2013)
Abstract: Cultural diversity and demographic change are major challenges to the education systems in Canada and the United States. American researchers have examined disproportionately low academic achievement, high discipline incidence, and inflated dropout rates for African-
American and Latino students when compared with their white counterparts (Vincent, Randall, Cartledge, Tobin, & Swain-Bradway, 2011). Canadian research and statistics indicate that almost 50 percent of Aboriginal students do not complete high school (MacIver, 2012). There is evidence that current educational practice is not equitable in its service to students of nondominant cultural backgrounds (Gregory, Skiba, & Noguera, 2010). Cultural diversity in our schools continues to increase, warranting further examination of the inherent challenges; along with this examination comes the exploration of effective ways to meet these challenges. Extant research on program-specific interventions suggests possibilities in meeting the challenges of cultural diversity through programs that enhance school connectedness (Chapman, Buckley, Sheehan, & Shochet, 2013).
Following the recommendations of such research, the Active Affiliation Group Program was devised to increase school connectedness among the culturally diverse students at the high school in which I work as a guidance counsellor. Active affiliation is a phrase I use to describe the intentional creation of a structured opportunity for emotional and contextual connection to take place. Through the process of active affiliation, the students in the program explored and shared their identities, experiences, and ideas, thereby increasing their sense of school connectedness.
Goldstone, Marian E. An Educational Model for Assisting Students With Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities. (2011)
Abstract: The Nonverbal Learning Disability (NLD) is a condition distinctly different from the more commonly known language based learning disability. Scholarly literature regarding educational planning for the NLD student is, as yet, far from exhaustive. Also wanting is information presenting models to address the educational needs of NLD learners. Relying upon evidence from published research and literature, current practices, and the author’s experience in special education, resource, and regular classroom, this thesis will contribute to these areas of concern by: reviewing the scholarly literature regarding NLD; selecting twelve published case studies of individuals diagnosed with NLD and discussing them in relation to the literature review; and constructing an educational model to address the needs of individuals with NLD based on information gleaned in the literature review and the consideration of the case studies.
Jacobsen, Wayne G. Instructional practices of Canadian police officer training programs. (2015)
Abstract: Canadian communities are asking their police officers to perform duties that are becoming broader in scope and this has placed increased demands on those officers. These changes also bring about questions about the methods used to train tomorrow’s police officer and how this training aligns itself with how adults learn.
The purpose of the research was to examine the instructional practices of contemporary police officer training programs with respect to Malcom Knowles’ six major principles of adult learning. The study used a mixed method design comprised of an instructor survey, and interviews with key informants from police training academies. Forty-eight instructors completed the survey and nine administrators participated in individual interviews.
The analysis of the survey data revealed that although respondents utilized activities that aligned with some of Knowles’ six principles, there were other activities that did not align. The analysis of the interview data revealed that participants understood and supported the utilization of most of Knowles’ six principles with their training programs. Further analysis of the interview data identified four emerging themes as having a significant impact on the delivery of police officer training: social context, model of training delivery; contributing institutional factors; and, instructor qualifications.
Based on the findings from this research police officer training academies should:
1. Promote a new model of training delivery that focuses on the learner and their ability to problem solve, think critically, and effectively work with others.
2. Adopt a pre-employment model of training.
3. Establish stronger partnerships with post-secondary institutions.
4. Work with all levels of government in order to facilitate change.
KRAMER, JENNIFER GLASSPELL. A CASE STUDY OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CHRISTIAN WORLDVIEW IN A CHRISTIAN SCHOOL
This case study looks at the alumni of one Christian high school in western Canada and the possible connections between their experiences in the Christian education program and their Christian worldview development. This study is grounded in transformative learning theory and Christian worldview development. The purposes of this study are to (a) relate the effects of the school’s Christian education program to alumni’s transformative learning experiences, and to (b) explore how alumni’s experiences in the Christian education program have influenced their Christian worldview development and, consequently, their long-term faith retention. The research questions ask: 1) What Christian education learning activities contributed to alumni’s transformative learning experiences? 2) What Christian education learning activities contributed to alumni’s Christian worldview development? and, 3) How do alumni perceive their interactions with religious thought and worldview development subsequent to their graduating from a Christian high school? To answer these questions, the researcher utilizes a parallel research method including an anonymous electronic survey and in-person semi-structured interviews. The findings show that the Christian education program in this case study may not have had a significant impact on the respondents’ transformative learning experiences and the development of Christian worldview development; however, other school influences did have an impact. These influences include staff and student relationships, event-based activities, school missions trips, and extra-curricular activities. Based on these findings, the researcher recommends (a) that Christian school staff work to collectively understand the process of worldview formation and develop an inclusive worldview statement, (b) the development of a discipleship pathway for staff and students to refer to, and (c) the increased incorporation of varied disorienting dilemmas into Christian education programs.
Landers, Leo W. Information and Communication Technologies: An Examination of Pedagogical Practices in the Context of Video Game Learning. (2012)
Abstract: Substantial investment has been made by the institution of education in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the belief that skills in ICT are critical tools for the work force of the future. Video games are an important part of this new field and yet they seem overlooked by current pedagogy in the classroom. In order to build a case for inclusion of video games in achieving core curriculum outcomes in the classroom, current traditional pedagogical practices of teachers are compared in the classroom and the computer lab. This is done to find out why video games are not used more often to achieve outcomes by teachers. The data in this qualitative case study consisted of interviews, a focus group discussion, and field observations made by myself. All discussions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was utilized to find common understandings from the transcripts. Final conclusions from the data analysis point to the reasons why video games are not used by the teachers in everyday classes. One major point was that teachers were trained in a rote learning environment which dictates they control all learning in the classroom. During the study when the teachers used the video game platform their pedagogy did not change to adapt to the different learning environment presented by having the video game in control of the lesson. This point and others revealed in the study show how teacher pedagogy must be flexible enough to adapt to new learning formats and more importantly the teachers must be conscious of their pedagogical practices to allow them to change from the conduit of knowledge to one of a facilitator.
Lowe, John Eric. An argument for art in the general curriculum. (2012)
Abstract: The following project fulfills part of the requirements for a Master of Education from Brandon University. The purpose of the project is to enable educators to integrate art into their daily lessons, using Manitoba Education’s 2009 K-12 visual arts curriculum. The hypothesis is that deficiencies would be identified in the K-12 visual arts Draft Manitoba Curriculum Framework. The research would then identify strategies to correct these deficiencies.
The method chosen was as follows. I analyzed the draft curriculum in relation to art educators’ answers to a survey that was completed as part of the curriculum development procedure. Then, I enhanced the curriculum in response to the educators’ expressed needs: I made recommendations for the curriculum implementation process, and I developed an appendix of supplementary art lessons. Finally, I field tested the art lessons to ensure that they addressed the deficiencies in the draft curriculum.
There are four anticipated outcomes for my project. First, teachers in all subject areas will feel confident in using integrating art into their daily lessons and classroom activities. Second, the students will learn to express themselves through art. Third, the students will use art as a visual language for learning, especially for creative problem solving. Fourth, through selected art lessons, I introduce Aboriginal art. Aboriginal approaches and related environmental issues are useful as catalysts for integrating art into all school subjects.
MARVIN, DEREK. CANADIAN EDUCATION ABROAD: EXPLORING THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF TWO DISTINCT MODELS
A growing number of schools around the world are using different models of Canadian education. There is a dearth in research that examines how each model operates and how their policies, processes, and programming are implemented in foreign contexts. This mixed method thesis study explored the strengths and weaknesses of two distinct models of Canadian education implemented abroad: educational franchise schools and provincially affiliated schools (PA).
Educational franchise schools contract experienced Canadian educators to train local teachers to implement Canadian curriculum and pedagogy in their country of origin. Canadian Educational Services Latin America Inc., otherwise known as Maple Bear, is the educational franchise presented in this study. There were 28 participants from 10 different MB schools. MB stakeholder groups consisted of franchise administrators, teacher-trainers, curriculum writers, school owners, academic coordinators, and classroom teachers. PA schools require provincially certified teachers and administrators to provide an education for local students using Canadian curriculum. There were 48 participants from 12 different PA schools. PA stakeholder groups were government liaison officers, schools principals, and teachers.
Quantitative data were gathered through an online survey consisting of 15 Likert-scale questions. Qualitative data were collected through 5 open-ended survey questions and one-to-one interviews. A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of each distinct model was organized into 11 themes: systems and structures; staff profile; recruitment and retention; community perspective; school climate; cultural and professional preparation; professional development; curriculum, resources, and materials; methodology; English language learning; and student as a learner
Monster, Todd. A Forgotten People: Supervising and Evaluating Substitute Teachers. (2012)
Abstract: The number of days that substitute teachers are used to cover classes is on the rise, and recent research indicates that student achievement is negatively affected when the classroom teacher is away. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to collect data that would identify the key components in an effective substitute teacher supervision and evaluation model for Manitoba school divisions. In order to address the purpose, three objectives were identified, (1) determine the need for a model of supervision and evaluation for substitute teachers, (2) identify the role each of the various groups should play in such a model, and (3) identify the key components of a substitute teacher supervision and evaluation model. Four elementary school principals, four classroom teachers and three substitute teachers in two school divisions in southern Manitoba, were given a questionnaire followed by an interview. Findings indicate that participants felt there was a need for an effective substitute teacher supervision and evaluation model, but were tentative about adopting a formal evaluation process. In general, these individuals felt that a supervision and evaluation model should focus on improving preparations for substitute teachers before they enter the building, providing specific, descriptive feedback to substitutes, and generally improving communication at all levels.
Nepinak, Georgina. Mina’igoziibiing: A History of the Anishinaabeg of Pine Creek First Nation in Manitoba. (2013)
Abstract: This thesis provides a unique view of a Manitoba First Nation community from an Aboriginal perspective. It is a general history designed chronologically from the pre-contact era to the present time. This thesis is especially written for Anishinaabe children and youth so they will know who they are and where their people came from. Developing a positive identity and pride in the Anishinaabe ways, language, and history is the starting point of healing from the impacts of over 100 years of forced assimilation and to find our rightful place in Canadian society. It is also written for professionals who work with Anishinaabe children, youth, and families in education, justice, health, and child welfare to give them a better understanding and cultural awareness of the Anishinaabe people and their history in Manitoba and Canada. Primary data was selected from archival documents and from the Pine Creek Historical Research Collection, including Elder and other community interviews, photographs, settlement maps, and reports. Secondary data included past and current books and articles on the Ojibway history of Manitoba, Canada, and other First Nations across Turtle Island. This history will form the basis for more detailed research by future generations of Anishinaabeg.
Nutbean, David. The Effectiveness of Technology Integration into the Classroom in Rural Manitoba High Schools. (2013)
Abstract: One of the biggest challenges facing education in the 21st century is effectively integrating technology into pedagogy. This quantitative study (n = 55) examined various factors that influence the use of technology in rural western, southern and central Manitoba high school classrooms. Teachers were surveyed about their personal, professional, and pedagogical use of information & communications technologies (ICT) as well as their pedagogical orientation toward student-centered approaches to instruction. The study also considered the availability and the frequency of use of technology in the schools and demographic factors that impact teacher ICT use. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were carried out. Findings suggest a number of strong correlations between teacher personal, professional and pedagogical use of technology. Among the findings were that the availability of technology in certain contexts is high and that internet access in rural schools is ubiquitous. The study also found that a number of technology uses were high for teacher personal and/or professional use, but not for pedagogical use in class. Results from the analysis on teacher pedagogical orientation showed possible incongruities for technology integration efforts. Recommendations to improve technology integration efforts through pedagogical change are addressed.
Osiname, Ayodeji T. The effect of the school principal in creating an inclusive school culture during times of change and challenge. (2015)
Abstract: This qualitative case study examined the leadership styles that five selected school principals in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, utilize to encourage and sustain an inclusive school culture. These principals found ways to successfully embrace difficult issues and challenging people while sustaining a positive culture and building a school community that supported diversity and embraced change. The framework that undergirded this study—the critical, inclusive praxis—reinforced that the school principal was charged with the responsibility of transforming the school through reflective, critical, and dialogical action. The author engaged in an interaction (i.e., interview) with these principals to learn about their lived experiences, particularly their patterns of behaviour related to their leadership approaches within a critical inclusive praxis. The study’s conclusions confirmed that through collaboration and dialogue, by building positive relationships in safe and caring environments where there is concern for others and a supportive approach, all the while still adopting a growth mindset, these school principals built positive cultures where stakeholders felt valued, safe, respected, and included. This research deepens our collective understanding of how principals negotiate the political dynamics within their schools and vary leadership styles to encourage and sustain an inclusive school culture.
RHEAULT, PAULETTE. THE EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING IN-SCHOOL GARDENING ON THE MENTAL WELL-BEING AND SENSE OF BELONGING OF STUDENTS
This mixed-methods study explored the use of in-school outdoor gardening as a means of addressing the mental health needs of grade 5 students. Students in a grade 5 classroom in a rural Manitoba school participated in outdoor gardening activities for two months of the school year. The study measured the impact of participation in the gardening activities on students’ self-perceived mental well-being and sense of school belonging. Quantitative data was collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a Mental Wellness Questionnaire and qualitative data was collected by conducting one-on-one interviews with each participant.
The study’s findings demonstrated overall improvement in students’ self-perceived sense of well-being following participation in the gardening activity, with students reporting a reduction in emotional difficulties at the end of the study. There was also an improvement in students’ sense of school belonging through improved peer relationships. In addition, the study reported incidental benefits of participating in the gardening activity which included increased student engagement and sense of ownership over the school garden.
Schroeder, Bryan. THE AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC REFLECTION OF A CHRISTIAN PRINCIPAL AND HIS GREAT DESIRE TO KNOW AND LOVE JESUS CHRIST WHOLEHEARTEDLY: A STORY OF BEING CALLED, ENCOUNTERED, AND CHANGED BY GOD WHILE GROWING AS A SERVANT LEADER. (2017)
This study presents a qualitative data driven account of highly personalized and transformative experiences that I reflect on, draw meaning from, and summarize the professional value of how I was called, encountered, and changed by God, as I pursued to know and love Jesus Christ wholeheartedly while growing in servant leadership as a (vice) principal at a Christian school. In 2014, I stumbled upon and pursued the notion of using my journal entries from May 2010 to December 2013 (271 pages), as qualitative data to write an autoethnography. The guiding research questions for this autoethnographic study were as follows: What prominent themes did I, a young (vice) principal at a Christian school, naturally write most about in my journal? What meaning did I derive from the personal encounters recorded within the prominent themes of my journal? How did the transforming experiences in my personal life influence me as a growing servant leader, in the principal role, at a Christian school? What kind of encounters did biblical characters, who were seeking God wholeheartedly, have with God that were similar to mine? How are my experiences of being called, encountered, and changed by God supported and paralleled by Christian literature? What implications do my findings have for (future) principals practicing servant leadership? My responses to the research questions offer valuable perspectives and unique insight from my view of the world, as transformation in my personal life led to transformation in my professional life.
Autoethnography was the chosen methodology to vividly express the emotional, intellectual, and spiritual details from my life, and analyze and interpret the meaningful encounters that I had journaled about. Themes were established through the inductive process of coding data, and findings were framed by the servant leader theory, which led to the writing of Chapters IV through VII. Chapter I is an introduction, Chapter II reveals the theoretical framework and worldview of the study in order to give the reader a grid with which to connect my thematic chapters, Chapter III presents my methodological framework, and Chapter VIII is the conclusion that discloses the inward and outward implications of my findings. It has a summary of how my personal encounters influenced my thoughts, feelings, and actions as a principal of a Christian school, and it also displays implications for principals practicing servant leadership and for teachers at public schools and Christian schools. The sources that contributed significantly to the credibility of this autoethnography were extensive Christian literature references, Bible verses, supportive research of the servant leader theory, and my authentic journal entries. Although my experiences were unique to me, many authors shared similar experiences in the context of their Christian communities. The life changing journey that I experienced, while growing as a servant leader, must be known among principals who also have a similar desire to hear from and know God, and be called, encountered, and changed by Him
Schroeder, David K. The challenges of being a novice principal in a decentralized school district in a remote community in northern Canada. (2015)
Abstract: This qualitative comparative case study answered the main research question of what challenges four novice principals experienced, within the context of a decentralized school district, in a remote, northern Canadian community. The district administrator provided a unique perspective of what challenges she believed the novice principals faced in the school district. Additionally, the study answered subsequent research questions about the strategies novice principals utilized to begin their year, and the policies and procedures the school district employed to support their novice principals. Data collection included: 1) interviews with the novice principals and with the district administrator, 2) participants’ personal reflections, and 3) a focus group discussion.
The findings confirmed the complexity of the principalship due to the demands of the job, and the amount of resiliency required. Two challenges experienced by the participants were budget management, because of the context of a decentralized school district, and managing the building. One strategy the participants identified for beginning the year successfully was to spend time building relationships with staff members and seeking their input. Additionally, the participants felt that a significant part of their successful preparation included an apprenticeship as a vice principal. Furthermore, they described how their former principals mentored them through the challenges they encountered during their first year in the principalship.
, Business Administration
, Classical and Modern Languages
, English and Creative Writing
, Gender and Women’s Studies
, Native Studies
, Political Science
, Rural Development
, Visual and Aboriginal Art
, Business Administration
, Classical and Modern Languages
, English and Creative Writing
, Gender and Women’s Studies
, Native Studies
, Political Science
, Rural Development
, Visual and Aboriginal Art